Electric power transmission is the process of distributing large amounts of electricity generated in power plants for consumer use. Electricity is transmitted from power plants to the end consumer through transmission lines. Transmission lines become transmission networks when they are connected to each other.
This transmission network of power stations and substations is called the ‘transmission grid’ or ‘grid’ simply. Nationally interconnected transmission networks are called the ‘National Grid’. Three-phase power typically transmits three-phase alternating current (AC) on the grid. Due to the high amount of power, the long-distance transmission usually takes place at high voltage (33 kV or more). Electricity is usually transported to a substation near the point of consumption, be it a populated area or an industrial complex. At the substation, the high voltage electrical energy is converted into low voltages suitable for consumer consumption and then distributed to the end consumers through the low voltage power distribution line.
Transmission capacity and transmission loss
Transmitting power at high voltage reduces the power lost to the resistance, which varies depending on the specific conductors, current flow, and length of the transmission line. Increasing the transmission voltage with the step-up transformer improves the transmission efficiency, resulting in a decrease in current in the conductors while maintaining a transmission similar to the power input. The current flowing through the conductor reduces the loss in the conductor, added by Servo Control Voltage Stabilizer manufacturers.
Therefore high voltages are required to reach the power distance efficiently. These voltages can be 33 kV, 66 kV, 110 kV, 132 kV, 220 kV, 400 kV, or more. The generator voltage of a power plant is usually 11 kV to 25 kV. The generated electricity is first carried from the generator to the transformer in the power plant. Increases the voltage to the voltage of the transformer grid. The generator then synchronizes with the grid and transmits the generated power to the user terminal. Transmission lines are connected to the substation during use. Here the transformer of the substation converts the voltage of the power supply from high voltage to low voltage. Power is supplied to the customers through substation power lines of low voltage from the substation.
The main components of the electric power transmission grid are given below:
Substations change the voltage from high to low or vice versa or perform many other important functions. The substation varies in size and configuration, expressed by High Tension Transformers manufacturers. Between the generating station and the point of consumption, electrical energy flows through several substations at different voltage levels.
The transmission substation connects two or more transmission lines. A simple case where all transmission lines have the same voltage. In such cases, the substation will have high voltage switches that allow for faulty clearance or maintenance or disconnection of connections or lines. A transmission station typically consists of two transmission voltages to control power factors correction devices such as voltage regulators, capacitors, reactors, or static VAR compensators and to control transformers such as phase switching transformers to control the current between two adjacent power systems.
Transmission towers are the most visible part of the power transmission system, articulated by Compact Substations manufacturers. They are typically used in high voltage DC and AC systems. The transmission tower is usually a tall steel structure. Its function is to isolate high voltage conductors (power lines) from their surroundings. Different types of tower shapes sizes and designs but they are usually very long, ranging in height from 15 m to 55 m and cross arms up to 30 m wide.
There are four main categories of transmission towers. They are suspension, terminal, tension and transposition. Some transmission towers combine these basic functions.
Towers must be designed to carry three (or three multiples) conductors. Towers are usually made of trusses or steel lattice. Insulators are assembled from glass porcelain discs or wires or long rods, the length depends on the line voltage and environmental conditions.
Typically, one or two ground wires, also known as ‘guard’ wires, are placed on top to prevent lightning and to safely deflect the surface. Towers for high and higher voltage are usually designed to carry two or more electrical circuits.
Electrical power is applied at high voltages (110 kV or more) to reduce the energy lost in long-distance transmission. Energy is usually transmitted through overhead power lines. Underground power transmission has significant high costs and operational limitations but is sometimes used in urban or sensitive areas.
Typically, several conductors are connected to a single transmission tower for each electrical circuit. Conductors are mainly made of twisted metal conductors, commented by Package Substations Transformers manufacturers. High voltage overhead conductors do not protect the insulation. The conductor material is usually aluminium conductor steel reinforced (ACSR), which is a special type of high-strength, high-strength isolated conductor. The outer chains are made of pure electrolytic aluminium rods not less than 99.5% EC grade and hard drawn aluminium wire made of copper not exceeding 0.04%. High purity aluminium alloy was selected for better conductivity, lower weight and lower cost. Centre struts steel for the strength required to extend weight without stretching aluminium. This gives a total high voltage to the conductor. Although copper was previously used for overhead transmissions, aluminium is lightweight, offers good performance, and is very inexpensive.
Role of Transformer in Power Transmission
The voltage coming to the substation at 115,000 or 46,000 volts is too high to go directly to the home or business area. Transformers are used to bring the voltage in surroundings to an acceptable level.
Transformers are devices that convert one voltage level to another voltage level, stated by Package Substations Transformers manufacturers. It can be up or down. The main feature of the transformer is that it transfers all the power supplied from the primary to the secondary without significant loss. This can increase or decrease the inductance or resistance or capacitance value in the AC circuit. In other words, it acts as an impact change unit. In addition, it can prevent DC current from flowing from one circuit to another and separate the two circuits into electricity. There are different types of transformers to get the above jobs.
1. Distribution transformers
2. Power Transformers
3. Furnance Transformers
Distributed Transformers –In the power distribution system it supplies final voltage to the transformation. In general, it is a step-down transformer.
Power Transformer – Maintain grid gain and reliability over long distances from the line.
Furnance Transformer – Used to increase and decrease voltage except standard commercial power ratings.